- When providing critiques orally or in writing, tell students that you have high expectations and believe that they can meet them.
David Kirp in a New York Times article summarized an article by Cohen, Steele, & Ross (1999) “when an English teacher critiqued black male adolescents’ papers, she added a sentence stating that she had high expectations and believed that, if the student worked hard, he could meet her exacting standards. Eighty-eight percent of those students rewrote the assignment and put more effort into rewriting, while just a third of their peers, who were given comments that simply provided feedback, did the same.”
- Cohen, G. L., Steele, C. M., & Ross, L. D. (1999). The mentor’s dilemma: Providing critical feedback across the racial divide. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25(10), 1302-1318.
- G. L. Cohen’s talk at Pomona also describes this work