Have students call on each other to encourage discussion rather than performance.


  • Introduce a procedure for students to call on each other.
  • Share tips with your students about reducing bias in the classroom
  • Consider having name placards for students so that students can call on each other by name as detailed in a related tip.


  • If you evaluate or comment on every student’s contribution it may make it difficult to sustain a discussion of the topic and may make the students think that you are the only audience for their comments.
  • Students may be more willing to make a contribution if it is a peer who is waiting to call on them.