Specify how students should indicate they want to speak to make it easier for quiet students to contribute to the discussion.


  • Make it explicit how students should indicate that they want to be called on to speak. For example, you might ask students who want to make a new contribution to hold up a hand and students who want to build on a previous contribution to hold up a finger.
  • Prioritize students who are building upon other students’ contributions, if that is appropriate for where you are in the discussion.


  • Not all strategies students us to try to gain access to the conversation are equally effective. Asking students to adopt a common method to enter the conversation gives you an opportunity to call on quiet students and make the conversation more coherent..