Specify and enforce civil behavior to avoid aggressive or unproductive comments. Have students brainstorm clarifying questions for the reading to clear misunderstandings before beginning the class discussion. Ask discussion questions that can have multiple perspectives to facilitate student contributions. Ask students how the class discussion could be improved to help develop an environment where students are comfortable and co-responsible for creating a good discussion. Check in with students about their understanding by doing thumbs up/down polls to avoid assuming the most vocal students speak for all students. Have students summarize the previous speaker’s comment to ensure better comprehension by everyone in the class.